In the modern car engine, the electronic control unit (ECU) involves both hardware and software, required to perform the functions as mixture formation, combustion and exhaust gas treatment. At the same filler content, the composite TCs always followed the same order of PP/PP-g-ma/f-BN > PP/BN > PP/f-BN, which was closely related to the morphology of the composites. This attitude was confirmed in the case of injection molding and extrusion  or foaming  processes during which a macromolecular orientation of polymer chain was inferred. The composite TC is calculated by Eq (1), The thermal and electrical behaviour of PP matrix filled with two of copper particles (in micron dimensions), was investigated by Boudenne et al. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Probably, in this second case, a decrease or/and breakup of the crystalline portions have been promoted by higher temperatures after which the conductivity of the amorphous has been risen. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170523, Editor: Yogendra Kumar Mishra, Institute of Materials Science, GERMANY, Received: October 7, 2016; Accepted: January 5, 2017; Published: January 20, 2017. The principal difference concerns the replacement of the main heater with heat flux sensor (HFT) . According to the classical percolation theory , when the filler volume fraction φf reaches a critical value φf,C (percolation threshold), a conductive network is formed and the composite conductivity increases much more quickly with the increase of the filler content.  by adding into PP two types of boron nitride (BN) with different particle size in micron. As shown in Fig 9, the composite TCs start increasing much faster when the filler content is above ~10 vol%, suggesting the appearance of percolation-like behavior of fillers within the polymer matrix. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170523.g002. The TC was increased from pure PP by 64% for the sample containing the highest filler loading (15 phr). The filler distribution in the composites was observed by ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM, SU8010, Hitachi, Japan). While for PP/f-BN composites, there showed the most voids and the most severe filler aggregation, causing the strongest interruption of the thermal paths. A homogeneous filler dispersion in the resin led to a consistent load transfer from the matrix to particle and in the realization of a conductive network for electrical and thermal energy. In steady state condition, Fourier’ law (Eq. In details, for the examined semi-crystalline polymer, starting from room temperature and going up to melting point, an opposite trend of TC have been reported. Data reported in literature on TC values of polypropylene. Another approach has been the combination of two or more fillers, having different size and shape, to optimize the filler packing and their distribution in the matrix, so to realize and support an effective thermal conductive network. The density was determined by a density tester (MH-300A, Qunlong, China) at 30°C. For the third series of PP composites, 2.5 wt% of PP-g-ma was added to PP matrix in addition to the f-BN fillers. The experimental testing showed that the heat conduction of the CPC heat exchanger was improved by a factor of 2 for the filler volume fraction of 25%. Moreover, during the cooling phase of these processes, sudden variation of TC could determine shrinkage, stress, delamination or voids in the final products . Results showed that the addition of GP fairly improved the crystalline, thermal stability and conductivity of the PP. Although the experimental evidences seem to be lesser and to be explored in greater detail, it should be emphasized that the increasing the compatibility between filler and matrix not always a positive effect on heat transport has been verified. Affiliation Therefore, the theoretical density of PP/BN composites is also taken as that of PP/PP-g-ma/f-BN and PP/f-BN composites. The introduction of functional groups on the filler surface or in the polymer chain has been tested for acting on the dispersion and on the interfacial interaction. The TC is estimated, knowing the temperature profile on time (T(t)) and the heat output by Eq. The former assumes that all phonons propagate as a planar wave, so the transmitted energy is related to different acoustic impedances of two materials. e0170523. As described in literature, heat transfer in polymer composites can be explained by the propagation of phonons or flow of lattice vibrational energy [20, 24].
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